The group known as Pegatron Corp. have become the next in a line of companies creating hardware based around Android and Chrome OS to have signed a patent agreement with Microsoft. It's been some weeks since we heard the last case of this happening, but what each of these cases have amounted to is the same as what's going on here: Microsoft owns a gigantic batch of patents, many of which cover devices whose functionality lends itself to Android. In this case, both Android and Chrome devices made by Pegatron might otherwise have fallen under Microsoft's lawsuit umbrella unless Pegatron made an agreement with Microsoft like they're doing here to give them cash per unit sold.
This is an extension of what Microsoft calls their "commitment to licensing intellectual property" and will not be the last time the company finds its way into the companies around the world that are running Android devices. Microsoft in this case has now licensed four of the top five Taiwanese ODMs and certainly plans on continuing down this path until they've got them all. According to Horacio Gutierrez, corporate vice president and deputy general counsel, Intellectual Property Group at Microsoft:
"We are pleased to have reached this agreement with Pegatron and proud of the continued success of our Android licensing program in resolving IP issues surrounding Android and Chrome devices in the marketplace" - Gutierrez
Microsoft has a website dedicated to IP Licensing which you can check out if you feel you might someday be working with them or for them in some sense or another. Microsoft will indeed be receiving royalties from Pegatron under this newest agreement though final details have not been released.