According to the Financial Times, the code used in the cyberattacks on Google’s China-based systems were traced by U.S. authorities to a Chinese hacker, who allegedly had close ties to the Chinese government.
He’s a Chinese security consultant on “freelancer” status, and had posted code used in the attacks online, claiming that the Chinese government had "special access” to his work:
"If he wants to do the research he's good at, he has to toe the line now and again," the US analyst said. "He would rather not have uniformed guys looking over his shoulder, but there is no way anyone of his skill level can get away from that kind of thing. The state has privileged access to these researchers' work."
The true identity(s) of the actual entity(s) behind the entire plot is yet unknown, but judging from all sides, the Chinese government had a definite role in its realization.
[via Financial Times]