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The Reason You Shouldn't Charge Your iPhone To 100%
All iPhones are powered by lithium-ion batteries, which deteriorate a little bit every time they're recharged, and the more often you recharge an iPhone's battery to 100%, the quicker its lifespan reduces. Though researchers are working on the development of next-generation battery tech, lithium-ion remains the best option for smartphones right now.
Apple provides a few ways to keep tabs on your battery health so you can make usage changes as needed. Under Settings > Battery > Battery Health, you can see your iPhone battery's charge capacity, and the Peak Performance Capability report is a one-liner that reveals whether your iPhone is operating at normal levels or if its performance is impacted by poor battery health.
Apple also has a feature called Optimized Charging that minimizes the amount of time your iPhone is fully charged, and helps delay the aging of its battery; when the feature is turned on, your iPhone will slow its charging after 80%. The iPhone learns how often you charge it, and when it anticipates you'll have your phone plugged in for a while, it turns on Optimized Battery Charging.
You may be wondering if it’s safe to charge an iPhone overnight; it depends. If you frequently charge your iPhone overnight and have Optimized Battery Charging enabled, your system should kick into trickle charge mode after 80%, so battery damage is minimized; however, Optimized Battery Charging may not work well if you don't have a regular sleeping schedule.
Ultimately, the Optimized Battery Charging feature is key to preserving your iPhone battery’s health, so take advantage of it. If you want to keep your battery in good shape for as long as possible, you should try to keep your iPhone above 20% but below 80% charge by manually removing it from the charger once you reach that upper limit.